Volume 69, Issue 7 p. 1925-1932
Clinical Investigation

Effect of music therapy on improving sleep quality in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Chia-Te Chen NP, MS

Chia-Te Chen NP, MS

College of Nursing, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan

Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

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Heng-Hsin Tung RN, FNP, PhD, DNP

Heng-Hsin Tung RN, FNP, PhD, DNP

College of Nursing, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Ching-Ju Fang MLIS

Ching-Ju Fang MLIS

Department of Secretariat, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Medical Library, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

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Jiun-Ling Wang MD

Jiun-Ling Wang MD

Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

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Nai-Ying Ko RN, PhD

Nai-Ying Ko RN, PhD

Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

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Ying-Ju Chang RN, PhD

Ying-Ju Chang RN, PhD

Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

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Yen-Chin Chen RN, PhD

Corresponding Author

Yen-Chin Chen RN, PhD

Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Correspondence

Yen-Chin Chen, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan, Taiwan 704, ROC.

Email: [email protected]

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First published: 20 April 2021
Citations: 14

Some of these findings were presented at the 23rd East Asian Forum of Nursing Scholars (EAFONS) conference.

Funding information: National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Grant/Award Numbers: NCKUH-T10905020, NCKUH-10909037

Abstract

Objectives

Poor sleep quality is a common issue among older adults; it can lead to a poor quality of life and impairments in cognitive function and physical health. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of listening to music on sleep quality in older adults.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analyses.

Setting

Five databases, including Embase, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and the Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature System, were searched to identify studies assessing the efficacy of music therapy in older adults aged 60 years and older published through February 20, 2021.

Participants

Adults aged 60 years and older.

Measurements

We searched English- and Chinese-language studies of randomized control trials. All studies were reviewed by two independent investigators. The primary sleep outcome was the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias, and Review Manager 5.3 software was used to conduct the meta-analysis.

Results

Five randomized control trials were included in the meta-analysis. Older adults who listened to music experienced significantly better sleep quality than those who did not listen to music [mean difference (MD): −1.96, 95% CI −2.23 to −1.73, P = 0.003]. The subgroup analysis revealed that older adults who listened to sedative music obtained a more effective improvement in sleep quality than those who listened to rhythm-centered music (MD: −2.35, 95% CI –3.59 to −1.10, P = 0.0002). Furthermore, listening to music for longer than 4 weeks (MD: −2.61, 95% CI −4.72 to −0.50, P = 0.02) was to be effective at improving sleep quality.

Conclusions

Music therapy is safe and easy to administer and can effectively improve sleep quality among older adults, particularly those listening to more sedative music for at least a four-week duration.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no potential conflict of interest in this study.