Volume 62, Issue 7 p. 1224-1230
Clinical Investigations

Milk and Dairy Consumption and Risk of Dementia in an Elderly Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study

Mio Ozawa PhD

Mio Ozawa PhD

Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Tomoyuki Ohara MD, PhD

Corresponding Author

Tomoyuki Ohara MD, PhD

Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Address correspondence to Tomoyuki Ohara, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3–1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812–8582, Japan. E-mail: [email protected]Search for more papers by this author
Toshiharu Ninomiya MD, PhD

Toshiharu Ninomiya MD, PhD

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Jun Hata MD, PhD

Jun Hata MD, PhD

Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Daigo Yoshida PhD

Daigo Yoshida PhD

Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Naoko Mukai MD, PhD

Naoko Mukai MD, PhD

Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Masaharu Nagata MD, PhD

Masaharu Nagata MD, PhD

Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Kazuhiro Uchida PhD

Kazuhiro Uchida PhD

Department of Health Promotion, School of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Nakamura-Gakuen University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Tomoko Shirota PhD

Tomoko Shirota PhD

Department of Health Promotion, School of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Nakamura-Gakuen University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Takanari Kitazono MD, PhD

Takanari Kitazono MD, PhD

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Yutaka Kiyohara MD, PhD

Yutaka Kiyohara MD, PhD

Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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First published: 10 June 2014
Citations: 90

Abstract

Objectives

To determine the effect of milk and dairy intake on the development of all-cause dementia and its subtypes in an elderly Japanese population.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Setting

The Hisayama Study, Japan.

Participants

Individuals aged 60 and older without dementia (N = 1,081).

Measurements

Milk and dairy intake was estimated using a 70-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire grouped into quartiles. The risk estimates of milk and dairy intake on the development of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model.

Results

Over 17 years of follow-up, 303 subjects developed all-cause dementia; 166 had AD, and 98 had VaD. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD significantly decreased as milk and dairy intake level increased (P for trend = .03 for all-cause dementia, .04 for AD, .01 for VaD). After adjusting for potential confounders, the linear relationship between milk and dairy intake and development of AD remained significant (P for trend = .03), whereas the relationships with all-cause dementia and VaD were not significant. The risk of AD was significantly lower in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of milk and dairy intake than in the first quartile.

Conclusion

Greater milk and dairy intake reduced the risk of dementia, especially AD, in the general Japanese population.