Volume 52, Issue 9 p. 1463-1470

Effectiveness of a Group Outpatient Visit Model for Chronically Ill Older Health Maintenance Organization Members: A 2-Year Randomized Trial of the Cooperative Health Care Clinic

John C. Scott MD

John C. Scott MD

From the Divisions of * Geriatrics and Health Care Policy and Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Research Unit, § Senior Programs, and Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

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Douglas A. Conner PhD

Douglas A. Conner PhD

From the Divisions of * Geriatrics and Health Care Policy and Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Research Unit, § Senior Programs, and Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

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Ingrid Venohr RN, PhD

Ingrid Venohr RN, PhD

From the Divisions of * Geriatrics and Health Care Policy and Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Research Unit, § Senior Programs, and Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

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Glenn Gade MD

Glenn Gade MD

From the Divisions of * Geriatrics and Health Care Policy and Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Research Unit, § Senior Programs, and Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

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Marlene McKenzie RN

Marlene McKenzie RN

From the Divisions of * Geriatrics and Health Care Policy and Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Research Unit, § Senior Programs, and Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

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Andrew M. Kramer MD

Andrew M. Kramer MD

From the Divisions of * Geriatrics and Health Care Policy and Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Research Unit, § Senior Programs, and Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

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Lucinda Bryant PhD

Lucinda Bryant PhD

From the Divisions of * Geriatrics and Health Care Policy and Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Research Unit, § Senior Programs, and Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

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Arne Beck PhD

Arne Beck PhD

From the Divisions of * Geriatrics and Health Care Policy and Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Research Unit, § Senior Programs, and Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

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First published: 16 August 2004
Citations: 112
Address correspondence to Douglas Conner, PhD, Clinical Research Unit, Kaiser Permanente, PO Box 378066, Denver, CO 80237. E-mail: [email protected]

Supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Chronic Care Initiative, Grant 024738.

Abstract

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of Cooperative Health Care Clinic ((CHCC) group outpatient model for chronically ill, older health maintenance organization (HMO) patients) with usual care.

Design: Two-year, randomized, controlled trial conducted with recruitment from February 1995 through July of 1996.

Setting: Nonprofit group model HMO.

Participants: Two hundred ninety-four adults (145 intervention and 149 usual care), aged 60 and older (mean age 74.1) with 11 or more outpatient visits in the prior 18 months, one or more self-reported chronic conditions, and expressed interest in participating in a group clinic.

Intervention: Monthly group meetings held by patients' primary care physicians.

Measurement: Differences in clinic visits, inpatient admissions, emergency room visits, hospital outpatient services, professional services, home health, and skilled nursing facility admissions; measures of patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, and activities of daily living (ADLs).

Results: Outpatient, pharmacy services, home health, and skilled nursing facility use did not differ between groups, but CHCC patients had fewer hospital admissions (P=.012), emergency visits (P=.008), and professional services (P=.005). CHCC patients' costs were $41.80 per member per month less than those of control patients. CHCC patients reported higher satisfaction with their primary care physician (P=.022), better quality of life (P=.002), and greater self-efficacy (P=.03). Health status and ADLs did not differ between groups.

Conclusion: The CHCC model resulted in fewer hospitalizations and emergency visits, increased patient satisfaction, and self-efficacy, but no effect on outpatient use, health, or functional status.